Category Archives: Industry and Business

Depth Conversion Techniques

Depth Conversion in particularly complex land areas can be difficult to determine whether it is reliable or not. The limited amount of seismic data, and the quality of it can mean it lacks accuracy and precision. However, despite recent breakthroughs in the technology of seismic imaging, precise depths aren’t always achievable with depth-imaging techniques.

Depth Conversion, therefore, comes top over alternative techniques to determine depth.

What is Depth Conversion

Depth Conversion is the measure between time, depth and rock velocity to determine how deep a reservoir is and how easy it is to excavate. This method is used when needing to drill far down into the earth’s surface, typically used in the oil and gas industry.

How Depth is Measured

The depth of the Earth’s surface is measured through soundwaves and the time it takes to get from one end to the other, and back again. The source of the soundwave is placed at one end, with a grid of receivers along the Earth’s surface at precise intervals so each part of the Earth’s surface can have its depth determined by using the time it takes to get from one point to another.

Measuring soundwaves alone isn’t enough to know exactly what the Earth’s surface is made from. Due to the varying nature of different rock types, these can distort readings of depth and shape due to their velocity. Rock velocity is as important, or even more so, as depth conversion it. Rock velocity tells us how hard or soft a rock is, which will help us in knowing how easy or hard it will be to drill down into the Earth’s surface. Rock velocity can be determined by using a geological hammer to see how fast rocks travel. Slow rocks “thud” or “squelch” whereas fast rocks “ding”.

From this information, many geoscientists and oil and gas industry experts use specialist depth conversion and seismic inversion software to start modelling data they have received to produce quick and effective results. This software can make even the most complicated data easy to read and into real and working models without over complication. With regular updates, depth conversion has never been so easy and with accurate results too!

 

Depth Conversion: Why we need it

Depth conversion and seismic inversion can take a very long time and it takes a great deal of precise measuring to get it exactly right. Depth conversion is used when measuring the depth of the earth’s surface and how easy it would be to excavate. This is typically used when needing to drill far down, this is usually used in the oil and gas industry. Depth of the earth’s surfaced is measured by using time and soundwaves. This is done by seeing how long it takes for a sound to travel from its source to reflectors and then when bounced back how long it takes for the receivers along the ground to pick it up.

Using this information you can measure the depth of the surface, however, this alone will not give you an accurate reading and it can even be impossible due to the varying nature of the rocks that form the earth. A rocks velocity can distort the depth and shape of a surface, and can eliminate areas which you may have once thought were a possibility.

Rock velocity is very important when it comes to judging how easy or hard it is to drill and it is determined by how fast or slow a rock is. The slower the rock the more porous it is and easier to drill. Using a geological hammer the speed of a rock can be determined. Fast rocks go “ding” and slow rocks “thud” or “squelch”.

There is no single methodology when it comes to depth conversion though and all cases differ. Since seismic and geologic control varies in quantity and quality with each project, an effective depth conversion approach must be used. Depth conversion may also need to take into consideration the area’s history and other poorly positioned wells before jumping right in and drilling.

Many geoscientists and oil and gas industry experts use software that specialises in depth conversion and seismic inversion, to achieve quick and effective results with techniques that determine relative impedance and absolute acoustic impedance from seismic data.

Petrel and IHS Kingdom are two of the most common software’s that are used in depth conversion but you may want to think about getting Equipoise Softwares Velit plug in which has added functionality, improves workflow, and is much more efficient with a reduced margin for error. This software produces a slicker workflow experience and is head and shoulders above its competition. Velit even makes the most complicated data easy to transform into real and working best case models without any added frustration and over complication. The software is regularly updated, so as soon as there is something new to hit the market you will be the first ones to take the full benefit of it. They are continually future proofing your depth conversion experience so that you can get data that is as accurate as possible.

 

Near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS)

The SPECS NAP-XPS system is a technique which allows for XPS characterisation under realistic conditions. XPS is a spectroscopic technique that allows for the chemical composition of the surface analysis of a sample to be determined; this is done through soft X-rays being fired at the sample and photoelectrons ejected.

These ejected photoelectrons carry information about the elements that are present in the sample and their bonding environment. Critically, only electrons from the very surface of the sample escape and reach the detector – thus making XPS a surface-sensitive technique. During the testing process, the sample and the detector are kept under high vacuum conditions during measurement, this is to ensure that the photoelectrons are not absorbed by air molecules before reaching the detector.

XPS has been used for a number of years in order to study surfaces, and it is regularly used in fields such as; catalysis, corrosion and electrochemistry – where the chemical nature of the surface of the sample is critical. However, there is a major drawback – it is used as post mortem technique. As the sample must be kept in high vacuum conditions during the measurement, scientists can only observe the state of the sample before and after a chemical reaction has occurred. It is not possible to look at the surface during a chemical reaction, which is the most interesting and sometimes, most informative part.

NAP-XPS overcomes this limitation by placing the sample inside a special high pressure cell connected to the analyser through several layers of differential pumping. This means that surfaces can be studied in-situ during chemical reactions; for example, following the surface chemistry of a catalyst while it is operating.

NAP-XPS represents a revolution in the field, allowing for the XPS characterisation of a sample in a gaseous environment. This is achieved through the maintenance of containing the sample in a high pressure cell that is only open to the analyser via a small aperture. A series of pumping stages after this aperture quickly reduce the pressure back down to high vacuum, and so limits the distance that the electrons have to travel through the high pressure of the gas. By placing the surface of the sample close to this aperture, the area under analysis can be in a high pressure of gas, whilst also allowing a usable fraction of the emitted photoelectrons to escape and reach the detector.

XPS is a common analytical tool used for quantitative measurement of the elemental composition as well as specific chemical state information of the surface constituents. It allows us to probe chemical interactions on the atomic level for vapor/solid interfaces. NAP-XPS also allows the investigation of the electronic and structural properties of small organics.

What it can do:

In the NAP cell

  • Analysis of samples in the presence of a gas (or a mixture of gases) up to a total pressure of 25mbar.
  • Heating/cooling of samples from -0ºC to 700ºC during analysis.

In UHV (Ultra High Vacuum)

  • Standard UHV sample prep (sputter/anneal cycles).
  • Cluster-ion sputtering (depth profiling of fragile samples such as polymers).
  • Dedicated chamber for evaporation of organics etc.
  • LEED (Low-energy electron diffraction).

 

Supporting The Successful Functioning Of Commercial Building

Commercial buildings are buildings that are planned to bring benefits to the owners and users. There are many commercial buildings that can make a profit; they are shop houses, hotels, boarding houses, apartments, etc.

Commercial buildings such as shop houses that can be rented out by the owner or as a place to open a business, hotels that serve as paid lodgings, boarding houses or apartments for rent so that they always provide sustainable income. Commercial buildings can also be used for rental office space, warehouses, shops, supermarkets, shopping centers and services such as clinics, laundry, workshops, etc. In order for commercial buildings to look more attractive and elegant, they should be the work of professional and experienced construction contractors such as Syscomax. Syscomax is experienced in terms of Commercial Construction; they not only design and build commercial construction but offer turnkey solutions by supporting customers from prospects and potential land locations to building deliveries, including financing aspects.

To support the successful functioning of your commercial building, it is necessary to design in detail and pay attention to several aspects such as imaging, economic value of the building, strategic location, principles of building safety, principles of building comfort, socio-cultural conditions of the community and development technology.

Imaging – Commercial buildings must have a strong image or character as an attraction to attract consumers. Every commercial building should have a strong character; this character will distinguish it from other buildings in the surrounding environment. The character will also help consumers to keep remembering the building.

Economic value – The economic value of a building is related to the costs incurred for maintenance every month. Make sure the commercial building that you are going to buy does not provide much homework. You will lose if you buy a commercial building that has a lot of damage, although you can sell or rent it at a high price after repairs in the future, but it will not return your capital quickly. Likewise, when you intend to build a commercial building, be sure to work with experienced Commercial Construction contractors who always understand client expectations.

Strategic location – Strategic location means commercial buildings are easy to see, search and reach by anyone in any way. The strategic location will also greatly affect the sale and rent values in the future. Ask for advice from experienced construction contractors like Syscomax before determining the location of your commercial building.

Building safety – Security is a psychological need that must be met when planning to build a commercial building. Security will also affect your comfort while using commercial buildings to run a business. Safe building means avoiding natural disasters, crime, robbery, etc.

Building comfort – Commercial buildings will benefit more if they are able to make the occupants and consumers feel at home. Comfort can arise from lighting, air circulation, audio, floor conditions, etc.

Socio-cultural condition of the community – Commercial buildings must be accepted by the surrounding community. If the presence of the building is unwanted or rejected by the surrounding community then this will clearly affect the smooth running of your business in the future.

Technological development – Technology affects every aspect of human life, one of which is the construction of commercial buildings. Commercial construction contractors must apply the most advanced technology in building commercial buildings. Construction technology is also expected to provide facilities for the surrounding community to plan and construct commercial buildings safely and comfortably.

Some aspects above need to be adjusted to the type of commercial building. You can consult commercial building construction plans with the best contractors like Syscomax. With the experience of working on hundreds of commercial construction projects they will provide the best solutions for every commercial building such as agribusiness construction, recreational construction, aviation sector, pharmaceutical sector, High density areas, etc.

Near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS)

The SPECS NAP-XPS system is a technique which allows for XPS characterisation under realistic conditions. XPS is a spectroscopic technique that allows for the chemical composition of the surface analysis of a sample to be determined; this is done through soft X-rays being fired at the sample and photoelectrons ejected.

These ejected photoelectrons carry information about the elements that are present in the sample and their bonding environment. Critically, only electrons from the very surface of the sample escape and reach the detector – thus making XPS a surface-sensitive technique. During the testing process, the sample and the detector are kept under high vacuum conditions during measurement, this is to ensure that the photoelectrons are not absorbed by air molecules before reaching the detector.

XPS has been used for a number of years in order to study surfaces, and it is regularly used in fields such as; catalysis, corrosion and electrochemistry – where the chemical nature of the surface of the sample is critical. However, there is a major drawback – it is used as post mortem technique. As the sample must be kept in high vacuum conditions during the measurement, scientists can only observe the state of the sample before and after a chemical reaction has occurred. It is not possible to look at the surface during a chemical reaction, which is the most interesting and sometimes, most informative part.

NAP-XPS overcomes this limitation by placing the sample inside a special high pressure cell connected to the analyser through several layers of differential pumping. This means that surfaces can be studied in-situ during chemical reactions; for example, following the surface chemistry of a catalyst while it is operating.

NAP-XPS represents a revolution in the field, allowing for the XPS characterisation of a sample in a gaseous environment. This is achieved through the maintenance of containing the sample in a high pressure cell that is only open to the analyser via a small aperture. A series of pumping stages after this aperture quickly reduce the pressure back down to high vacuum, and so limits the distance that the electrons have to travel through the high pressure of the gas. By placing the surface of the sample close to this aperture, the area under analysis can be in a high pressure of gas, whilst also allowing a usable fraction of the emitted photoelectrons to escape and reach the detector.

XPS is a common analytical tool used for quantitative measurement of the elemental composition as well as specific chemical state information of the surface constituents. It allows us to probe chemical interactions on the atomic level for vapor/solid interfaces. NAP-XPS also allows the investigation of the electronic and structural properties of small organics.

What it can do:

In the NAP cell

  • Analysis of samples in the presence of a gas (or a mixture of gases) up to a total pressure of 25mbar.
  • Heating/cooling of samples from -0ºC to 700ºC during analysis.

In UHV (Ultra High Vacuum)

  • Standard UHV sample prep (sputter/anneal cycles).
  • Cluster-ion sputtering (depth profiling of fragile samples such as polymers).
  • Dedicated chamber for evaporation of organics etc.
  • LEED (Low-energy electron diffraction).

 

Is Composite Hose Better Than Rubber Hose?

Composite hoses are made from various thermoplastic films and tubes with tight cuts that create a barrier to permeation. Composite hoses are designed to be truly flexible which does not wrinkle or collapse with extraordinary life. This hose offers superior security and performance for high temperature liquid or vapor transfers such as for suctioning or discharging gasoline, diesel, biofuels, paraffin, and various other chemicals.

One of the main reasons that make engineers choose composite house is the resilience of transferring media that will go through it. Composite hoses can be a more diverse choice for various media, especially chemical. In addition, a composite hose is easy to use, lighter than rubber hose, safer in the event of an explosion, and more flexible because it has a four times smaller bend radius than a large rubber hose.

As I explained above, a composite hose is made of multi layer Thermoplastic fabric and film. This hose is made under very tense conditions; this condition forms the ability of self-sealing due to the stresses of the internal and external wires that work opposite to each other so that they will be able to press and close each hose wall layer. Such construction conditions make the composite hose capable of providing many advantages over rubber house. From several references, I conclude several advantages such as:

• The construction consists of a multi layer fabric so as to prevent fatal damage.
• Composite hoses can be used to transfer most types of chemicals.
• Flexibility is maintained in very low temperature conditions.
• The outer wall consists of PVC layer which has the ability to prevent corrosion and excellent resistance to UV and Ozone.
• The composite hose can accept twisting while rubber does not.
• It has a smaller bending radius especially at low temperatures.
• It is not easy to squeeze especially when bent because of internal and external helical.
• Easy to use because it is flexible and lightweight.

Some of the advantages above can be taken into consideration before using a composite hose for your industry. In addition, you need to know the best provider of composite hoses to guarantee hose quality and durability. The durability of composite hoses is strongly influenced by the thickness of the wire gauge, wire pitch, number of film layers, etc. Also make sure that the manufacturer provides a composite hose with high-quality construction materials so that it is resistant to abrasion and extreme weather.

 

Espresso Machine Works

The perfect espresso is a dark rich liquor with distinctive chocolate foam that floats on its surface – the famous crema. Initially Crema was considered undesirable, but it is now considered an important way to assess the quality of a good espresso. This is the main ingredient and base for most coffee shop drinks such as cappuccino and latte. It is said that the first ever espresso machine was invented in France in 1822 and not Italy as one might expect. In fact espresso machines were around in various forms for over 100 years before the Italian Achille Gaggia applied for the first patent in 1938. Mr Gaggia devised a system using a powered lever system to force hot water through the coffee to produce espresso. The name Gaggia is closely associated with espresso machines even today.

Best-Espresso-Machines-28022019

A couple of decades later, in 1960 the Faema Company starting manufacturing machines that used a pump system for producing espresso.

Every espresso machine has at least one brew point, commonly known as a group. Close to these are the group handles which contain the metal filter baskets and compacted coffee. Usually espresso machines for the home only have a single group head. Commercial machines for busy coffee shops typically have 2 or 3 group heads and can contain up to 4. The group handle is fitted with either one or two spouts which direct the espresso into a coffee cup below as it is brewed and forced through. That means an espresso machine can brew up to twice the number of cups as it has group heads simultaneously.

Espresso equipment uses three different types of extraction methods: steam, piston and pump driven. The steam model uses steam to force water into and through the grounds using steam pressure. These were the first type of machines produced and although this technique is not used for commercial equipment it is still used for domestic machines today.

The piston versions use a piston or long lever to pressurise hot water and force it through the coffee. This is where the origin of the phrase, ‘a shot of coffee’ comes from. The act of pulling the lever became known as pulling a shot.

The pump version, the motor pump provides the job of forcing water through coffee instead of requiring the power applied by the manual operator. The pump method is generally used on sturdy commercial coffee equipment which is suitable for heavy use.

Types of Coffee Machines

When we want a delicious, smooth and rich cup of “Joe”, you might want to research and record all the different types of coffee machines on the market. Coffee machines can be found in homes, dormitories, offices. You will even be able to find coffee makers that are designed to fit the space in RVs and “big rigs”! If you are going to camp, there is a coffee maker that you can use too! There are many coffee machine models on the market today. Each has special features and most are available in various colors, finishes, sizes and prices. There are many types of coffee machines, including: automatic, French press, stove top, espresso, vacuum and the pod. These machines will either be hot or cold brew coffee makers. There’s actually even machines that are combination; they posses both grinder and coffee making capabilities! Whether you need a coffee maker that produces one cup, or 20 cups and more, there are many machines to pick from.

coffe machine

Many companies manufacture machines used for making coffee, including: Bodum, Bosch, Bunn, Capresso, KitchenAid, Mr.Coffee, Jura, Saeco, Rancilio and Santos. These makers are offered in many colors, including: black, red, white and just about every other color you could want. They can be found to be made of a durable plastic or stainless steel and they usually contain a shatterproof glass carafe.

The features offered include: electric timers, filters, frothing systems, thermal glass carafe, water reservoir, lighted on/off switch, digital/programmable, warming plate (some are metal and some are porcelain) and thermostat. Coffee machines can also vary in price, depending on your preference and functionality it will need to perform.

One thing is certain, when you crave a large cup of coffee, espresso or cappuccino, you will want to think about the type of machine you need. After you determine your price range, make a list of the features you are looking for. There are so many different coffee machines out there, you will have no trouble finding the right one for your home, office or restaurant.